Sudan Peace Agreement
The third round of negotiations began in mid-December 2019 in Juba, after being scheduled for 21 November 2019.  The round of negotiations was delayed for several weeks because “some of the armed movements were forced to hold workshops on the peace process,” said South Sudanese mediator Tut Galwak.  The Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) agreed with the SRF to delay the establishment of the Transitional Council until 31 December, giving the SRF, SPLM-N (al-Hilu) and the government time to reach an agreement before the creation of the Legislative Council.  At least 48 people were killed and many others injured in Darfur. The violence comes less than a week after a peace deal between the government and rebel groups in the troubled region. A final agreement on the East Line was reached on 21 February 2020. The terms of the agreement implied an increased representation of South Sudan in federal government structures; creating a locally funded reconstruction fund; and the creation of an internationally funded private bank in East Sudan to support political, educational, health and other structures.  On 17 December, the “No to the Oppression of Women” initiative called on the Sovereignty Council to include women, “particularly displaced and victims of war,” in the Sudan peace process. Ihsan Fagiri, of the initiative, described women`s views on the peace process as going beyond formal signing of agreements at the national level, including “social peace, health and education” and the signing of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women by Sudan.
 Sudan`s peace agreement includes eight protocols and will restructure the country into eight regions and replace the country`s current 18 provinces. The agreement also provides for the granting of wealth sharing and reparations to those who have been harmed by the long conflict and promises the return of refugees displaced by the fighting. The signatory parties must now strive to implement the provisions of these agreements as quickly as possible in order to achieve lasting peace in all regions of the country and to promote reconciliation among all the peoples of Sudan. In 2005, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement resolved part of the armed conflict in Sudan, including the 2011 referendum on South Sudan`s independence and the secession of South Sudan. The Abuja and Doha peace accords in Darfur in 2011 aimed to resolve the conflict in Darfur. The draft constitutional declaration of August 2019, signed by military and civilian representatives during the 2018/2019 Sudanese revolution, requires that a peace agreement be reached for a democratic civilian government within the first six months of the 39-month transition period.   This article focuses on the component of the peace process that began in 2019. On 26 January, Shamseldin Kabashi of the Sovereignty Council and Dahab Ibrahim of the Kush movement signed a “definitive” peace agreement for the Northern Railway, including studies for new dams, compensation for people displaced by existing dams, road construction and the burial of electronic and nuclear waste.  Two negotiating areas with SPLM-N (al-Hilu) had advanced until 21 January on six framework agreements after a two-week break, but subsequent differences over the SPLM-N (al-Hilu) request for a secular state in southern Kordofan and the Nuba Mountains and the Blue Nile self-determination.  On 17 August 2020, Khalid Abdin for the government and Ahmed el-Omda for SPLM-N (Agar) signed a security agreement for both areas, including the integration of the Armed Forces of the Sudan Revolutionary Front into the Sudanese Armed Forces.  Negotiations on political issues continued in the days that followed.
 France reaffirms its full support for the ongoing democratic transition in Sudan and stands ready to assist the Sudanese authorities in facilitating the successful implementation of peace agreements.